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طراحی محیط گرافیکی و مدل ترافیکی شبیه سازهای گروه واقعیت مجازی نصیر

"ASARun is a driving simulator designed for research and training purposes with both fixed and moving platforms. In this paper, the graphical and traffic simulation of the virtual environment is described. For realistic simulation, a real model
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  *ʄ ʇ 103   ɷ <ʄʈɳ ʇɷ <> ʄ < ʈ  ʈ1392  ɳ ʄ ʈ ɳ  ɳ @ɸ ɳʈ ʇʈ @ɸ @ <ɳ>ɳ> <ɵʆɳɳ <ʆɳ < ɳ ɳ ʇɳ> <   ɳɸ  <ɳ>ɳ> <ɵʆɳɳ <ʆɳ <  ʇɳ> <   >  ʇ<ɳ>ɳ> <ɵʆɳɳ <ʆɳ < ɳ ɳ ʇɳ> <   @ ɳ<ɳ>ɳ> <ɵʆɳɳ <ʆɳ < ɳ ɳ ʇɳ> <    @ <ɳ> <ɷ>ɳɵʆɳɳ <ʆɳ < ɳ ɳ ʇɳ> <   E-mail: hnaseri@gmx.com  ɷ>:31/06/1391-ɺ:08/12/1391  ʇ  »      ɸ  ɳɷ  ʆɳɷɮ  «  ʈ    ɳ @  ʈ   ɸɮ   ɷ> ɿɳɳ      ʈ   ʃ ɳ . ɷ> ɳ  ʀ  ʀ <       ɸ @  ɳ       ʈ  ɳ       ɳɷ  ɸ @ < ɷ>      ɸ  ɳɷ  ʆɳɷɮ        > . ɷ>  ɳ   ʀ    ɸʀ @  ɳ @      <ɸ ɳɳ    ʇ        ɸ @  ɳ   ɸ   ʆɳ <  ɷ  ʀ @  ʀ     ʀ  >ʀ . ʀ  ʀ  ɳʀ @  ʄ  ʈɷ> @ ɳɷɳ        >  ɷ> ʆɮ  <  ʇ>ɳ ɸɳ ʄ ɷɷ <ʆɳɷ >ɷɳ ɸ         >ʀ :       ɸ @     ʈɷ @     @ <ɴ  ɷ>     ɳ ɸɳ ʇ>ɳ         ʀ  ɳ> ʀɳ  ʀ  ʈ @  ʈ     < ɷ>  ʆɳ    ɸɳ ʇ>ɳ     ɳ> ɳ     ʇ @ɳ   ʈ  < ɷ      ʅʀ ɸɳ ʇ>ʀɳ ʀ  ʀ       ʀ   <ʈɷ> ɴɳ  ɳ  >ɷ ɸɳ  ʈ   ʈ ʈɷ> ɳ ʆ     ʇ> ʃɷ>   ʈ       @         ʈ ʄɳ  ɳ  @    ʅ        < ɷ       ɸ  >     <ʈɷ> ɷ     ɸ  ʈ        @ . ʇ> ɸɳ  @ɸ  ɳɷɳ ʄ     ɳ ɷ> ʇ  ʇ>ɮ ɸ  ʈ ʆɳɷ ɸɳ ɳ  ʆɳɷ ɸɳ ɸɷɳ ʀ ʈ ʀ  ɳ .   ɷ>  ɺɸɮ ɳ ʄʈɳ @ʈɷ   2000ɳɷ ɵ ʇ> ɹɳ  @ɸ .  ɳ  ʀ ɳ ɷ> ɸ     @ɷ   ʇɸ ɷ> ɳʈɷ    ɳɷ ɳɷ  ʇ>   @ɸ .   ʇʺɳʈ@ @:     ɸ@ ɳ     <    ɸ@ ɳɷ < ɳʈ   ɸ@  1-  ʄ ɷ>2000<ʈɷɳ >ɳʇʺʈ   ʆɳʀ ʀ @ɳ »ʀɸɷɳ @ɷɳɳ ɸɳ ʇ>ɳ  ɸɷɳ ʈ ʇɳɷ ɺɸɮ ɺʈɷ ʈ  @«ʀ ʀɷʀɳ " TRAINER  " ʀ ɳɷ@ɷ12  ʇʀɳ> ɸɳ <><ʀʈɷɳ ʀ @ʀ  ɸɮ . ʇʺʈ ɳ ʁʈɺɸʀɮ ʀ ʈ ʀ  <ɳɷʀ ɸɳ ʇ>ɳ ɻʀɳ ɷ> ʀɳɷ @ɸʀɺɸɮ >ʀ .ʀ> @ɷʀ ʇʺʈʀ ʀɳ ɷ> ʀ ʀ ɸɳ ʀʀʀɷ: BIVV < AUTHCIECA < CRF < DKH < EFA < IFADO < IAT < DrForestGMBH < RUG < UPV ʈ VTI . ɴ  ʆɳɳ ʈ ɿʈɳ ><ʈ  ɸɳ@>ʀ @  ʀʈ ʀ ʈ ʆɳɷ@ʀ ɷʀ ʈ ʀɳ @ʀ ʀ ʀɸɮ  ɳ   ʆɮ   <ʈ@ɸʀ>.ʀ @ɳɸʀ ʀ ʀ> ʈ ɺɸʀɮ ʀɳ @ɸʀ@ʀ ʆɳɳ ʆɳɷɻ@>ʈɷ <ʇʺʈ ɳ ʁ ʆɳɷ  ɶɳ .ɳ ɷ> ɳ @ʈɷ   ɳ = ʅɳʀɻʀ@ɷʀ ʀɳɷ ʀʈɷ>ʄʀ  @ ʈ @ <> <ɳɸ  <@ɷ <ʄʈɳ ʇɷ <> ʄ < ʈ  ʈ1392 104  @ɳ>ʀ ʀ  ʈ  @ ʆ>ɷʈɮ    ʆɮ ɸɳ ʆɳɷ    ʈ ʆɳɷ . ʆɳʈɷ ʈ ɸɮ ɴ ʆɷ ʀʀɳ ʀ <ʀ> ʀ >ʀ ʀ ʀ  @.@ʀɸ <ʀʀɳ ɵɸʀʀ ʆʀʀ ɸɳ ʇ>ʀʀɳ ʀʀ ʆʀʀɳɷ ʀʀɸɮ <ʀʀɸ ɿʀʀ ʀʀ <ʆʀʀɳɷ ʀʀ ʀʀ ʈ ʆʀʀɳʈɷʀ ʈ ʀ ʆɳʀ <ʀ ʀ <ʀ ɳ ɷ <.  ʇ> @ɳɸʀ ʀ ɷ> ʀɸɮ ʀ @ɸʀ@<ʀ   ɷ> ʆɮ  ɳ ʇɸɮ  ɳ ɸ ɳ.ɳ ɷ>  ʇ ʇ>ʀ ɳ ɷ> @ɸ @ʈɷ> ɷɷ @ɸ  ʀ ʀɳ> ɳ>ʀ.ʀɳʈ <ʀ ʀɳ ʅʈ> ʀ ɷ>  ɸɳ ʇ>ɳ ʈ @ɸʀɳɷ ɺɸɮ @ɳ ɳɷ @ɸ ɷɳ ʇ>ɳ>>. <ʅ  ɷ>ʀɳɷ ɸ ʀʀ ʀʀ ʆɳɷʀʀɮ >ʀʀ.ʀʀɸɮ ʀʀ <ʅɷʀʀ ʀʀ ɷ> @ɸ ʇ ʇ>ɳ>   ɷ>.ʀ ɷ>  ʀ> ʀʈɳ  @ɸ  ɳ ɳ <ʀ ʀ ʀ ʀɳ @ɳʀ ʀ ʀ ʀ ʈ ɳʈ ɿʈɳʈ ʀ ɸʀ @ɸ @  <ʆɳ  ɸɳʀ ɷʀ@ʀ ʀʀɳɷɳ ʀʀ >ʀʀ.ʀʀ >ʀʀɳ @ɳʀʀ ʀʀ <ʀʀ ʀʀ ɷ>  ʆ @ɸ @ʈɷ>ʄʀ ɸɳ ʇ>ʀɳ ʀ <ʆɮ ɷ> ʀ >ʀɷɷ <ʆɳɷ  @ʈɷ   @ɸ ɷ> ɴ @ ʆɳ <<ʀɳ  >ɷ ɸɳ ɴɳ <ʅ  ɷ < ʈ ɸ  ʈ  ɷ ʅɳ @ >ʀ .ʀɳ  ʄɳ @ ɳ ɸɮ @.  2- ɸɳ ʇ>ɳ ʈ @ɸ ɳʈ@ɳ ɸ ɳɷ ɺɸɮ   <@ɸʀʀʀ ʀʀʀɳʈ ʀʀʀ ɷ>ʀʀʀ ɼʀʀʀ ɷ> ɷʀʀʀ @ɸ ɷɳ ʇʀɳʈ ʀ ɷ> ɷ ɹɳ ʈ >  ʈɳ  >>. ɷ ɹɳ ɳ ʈ ʀ ɷ   ʈ@ɷʈʆɮ ɷ>>ɳ>.< ɸɳ ɷɽʀɷɳ ʆ ʈ ɷ  =ɳ@ ɷ ʀ  ɳ>ɷɳ < ʈʀ ʀɳ ʀ>ɷɳʀ ʀɳ ɷʀ .  ʆɮ  ʆɷʈ ɳ  ɷ  ɷ>  ʆ  @ɸ ʀ> ʈɳ ʀ ɳʈ  ɷ> ɷ ɹɳ ʀʀ> .ʀʀɳ =>ɷɳ> ɷɳʀʀ @ɸʀʀ ʀʀ ɷ> ʈɳ <ʀʀ ʀʀɳ ɷ> ɳʈ@ɳ ɳʈ ʄ> ʈ    > . ʇ> ʄɷ < ɺɸɳ>ɳɷɷ @ɷʀʇ>ʀ   ɳ=ɷ><ʈ ʇɸɳ>ɷʀɷʀ ʈʀɳ   @ɳ>ʀɳ.ʀɳɷʀ ɳʀɳʀ ʈ <  >ʈʆɮ @>ɷ  @ɳʀʀɳʈ @ɸʇɳ ʇ>ʄ<>>ʀ .ʀ ɸɳ >ɷ ɳʆɳɺɸɮ ʅʅʀ <ʀ<ʀ ʅʅ <ɳ ʈʀɳɷ ʈ ʀ <ʀɳ ʈ ʇɷɳ> .ʀɳ <@ɸʀ ʀɳʈ ɸɳ ʇ>ʀɳ ɿɳʀɳ ɸɳ ʀ ɸ.ɳ  ɸʆɳ <@ɸ @ ʆ>  ɷɳ ɳ ʆ ɳɷ  ʆɮ  ɷ ɽɳɷ >ʀ ɷ    ɷɳ  ʆɮ  ʈ ʇ> ɹɳ  ɷ> .  ʀ  ʀ ɿɳʀʀɳ ɸɳ ʀʀ <ɸʀʀʀʀɳ ʀʀɳɷ ɸʀʀ.ʇɸʈʀ  ʀɳ ʇ  ʈ ɳ <ʈ >ɳ ɷ> ɳɷ @ɸɸɳ ʈ ɳ ɮ    ʀ ʀ ʆɳɷʀ ɺɸʀɮ @ɳ  ʇ>ʀɳ ʆʀɳɷ ɷʀɷ   >. ʄ @ɳʈɷ> ɷ @ ɸɳ @ɸɸ  ʇ >  > ʈ ɸɮ @ɳ.ʀ @ɳ   ʆɳ ɳɷ @ɸɹ @ʈ >ɷ < .ʅɳ.>ʀ ʇɷɳ >.ʀ ɸɳ ʆʀ ɸɳ ʀ@ɳʀ ɸʀ  ɸɮ  ʇ > @.ʇɳɷɷ ɷ> ʄ @ɳ@ʀ  ɸɳ <?ɳ @ɳɷɳ>  ʆɳ ɳɳ ɷ @ɳ ɸ @ɷɳ  ɳ ʇ ʇ>ɳ ɳ  )Dutta, Fisher and Noyce,2004.(  ɷ> ɸɳ <> @ɳʀɷ @ɳʀ ɸʀ  ʀ ʆɳ ʈ   > ɳɷ ʇ>ɳʇɳ (Yan, 2008) . ʀ > ʈ>  ɷ ɹɳ  ɸʆʀ ʈ ʀʀ  . @ɸ@ @ɳɷɳ>   ʄɳ   ʈ  ʆɮ @ʈɷ ɷ    < ʀʀ ʀʀ ɷ> ʆʀʀ ʈ ʇʀ>ʀʀ ʀʀɳɷ ʇʀʀ @ɸʀ  ʀʀʀ . ɸʆ @    @ɸʀ <   ɴʀ ʈ ʇ>ʀ ʃ @ @ɳɷɳ>   ʈ ɳ@ʀ   ɷ   ɳ ɸɳ >.    ɳ ʄ ʈ ɳ  ɳ@ɸ...105 ɷ <ʄʈɳ ʇɷ <> ʄ < ʈ  ʈ1392 3-ʆɳɷɮ ɳɷ ɸ  ʆɳɷɮ ɳɷ ɸ)<ʆɳ> ʈ ʆ1387(ʇʀɳ> ɷ> ɳ ʀ ʄʀ ʀ ʀ ʁ  ɳ ɿɳɳ @ɳɷɳ> ʈ ɳ ʇʆ ʈ ɳ .ʀ ɷ>1 ʄ AM3 ʀ ɵʀɸ ɷ> ʀ ʀɳ ʇʀ ʇ>ɳ> ʆʀ@ɸʀʆ ɳɷɳ .  1.ʄ <ʆɳɷɮ ɳɷ ɸ AM3 .    ʄ AM3  ɳ ʃ @   <ɸʀɷ> ɺ ʈ  ʈ ʈɳ @>ɳɸɮ ɳ.ʀ ʀɳ > ʄɸʀ >ʀʀ ʀʀ ʀʀ ɷ>ʀʀ14ʈ ʀʀɷ>5ʈɷ>ʀʀ @>ɳɸɮ ʀʀɷ>  ɷʀɳ ʀɷ>.@>ʈɷʈ ʀɷ> ʀ ʄʀ ʀɳ@ʀ ʈ <@ɸ  ɸɳ > ɳɷ  ʈ  ɷ ʄ̺ɳ ɿɷɳ ʈʈɷ>ʀ ɷ> ɷʀ    ʀ <ʀɳʈ @ > ɳ ɷ .ʇʈʀ ɷʀ ʃɷ> ʀɷʀʈʀɳʈ@ʀ  @ > @ɸ   <ɸʈ ʀ ɷʀ  @ .ʄʀ ʀ ʀ> @@ɸʀ ʅ  ʈ >ɷɳ>  @ ʆɳɷɮ ɳɷ@ AF ʈ PF ʈ PFA ɳɷɳ>)ʈ ʆʀ<ʆɳʀ>1387.(@ʀ ʀ  ʃʄʈ  <ʇʺʈ ɳ ɷ> ʇ1ɳ.  4- ɷ>  ɹʈɷ> @ɸ ɳ  ʇɳ> @ɸ ɳʈ ʇɸɮ ɷ> ɹʈɷ> ɳ ɳɳɷɳʀ>ʀ.ʇʀɳɷɷ> ʀ ɸɳ ʀ ʀ ʅ ɷ>    <ɸɷɳɳɺɸʀɮ <ʇʀ ʇ>ɳ> ɷɳ@ʀ  ɳɷ ʅɸ ʀ ʀɸɷɳ ʆ ɷ>  ʈ ʀ.ʀɸɷɳ    ɳ ɷ ɿɳɳ ɷ> ʇɳɷ > ɺɷɳ ɷ.   ʄʈ 1.@@>ɳɸɮ ɷ> ɳ@ɳ ʇ ʄ ʆɳɷɮ ɳɷ ɸ AM3 .     250ʅ    ʇɸ  ɴ  ɿɷɳ  ± 70 mm   ± 5/0 m/s   ± 1 g    ± 15 º  90 º/s   ± 24 rad/s2     ± 14 º  100 º/s   ± 24 rad/s2  >ɳ  3/1 m × 3/1 m )  ʆʈ(   9/2 m × 9/2 m )  ʆʈ( 4-1-?ɳ ɳ ɷ> ɳɳɷ @  <ɳɷ ?ɳ ɳɷ>  ɳʇʈʁ    >ɷɳ> ʀʀ ɷ> ɳɷ ʆɳʀʀ ʀʀɳɷ <ʈɷ>ʀʀ ʃʀʀɳ ʈ ʀ.ɳʈɳ)1991(<ʀ ?ɳʀ ʆʀ> ʅʀ  ɳ ʇ>ɳ> > ʀ  ʆɷ ʅ @  ʈ ʈɷ>   @ <ɳʀ ɳ  ʁ ɳ  >   ɳɷɮ   @ɷ ʈɷ><ʀɳ ʀ ʀ ʆʀɷ ʆʀɸ ɷ> > ʇ  ɳɷ ?ɳ.  4-2-  ɷ  ʇʈ <  ɷʀɳɷ ʈ  ʁ  ʀʀ ɷ> <ʆɳʀʀ>ɷɳ> ɳʀʀ ʀʀ >ʀʀ >ɳʀʀ ʆ>ʀʀ  ( Johnston, Brooks, and Savage, 2008 ) .<ɹɷ> ʀʀɳ ɷ> > ʇɳɷ>   <ʈ  ɷ>  ʀɷ  ɳ  ʀ ʀɳɷ ʀɳ <ɳ .ʀ ʆʀɳɷ ʀɷʀ ɷ   ɳ   ɷʈ ʈ ʆɳɷɳ ɮ  ɮ    ɳɷ  @ɷɷ ʈ  ʀ   ɸɮ   ɮ  ʁ> ʀ >ʀ ( Brackstone, Waterson, andMcDonald, 2009 ) .    @ ʈ @ <> <ɳɸ  <@ɷ <ʄʈɳ ʇɷ <> ʄ < ʈ  ʈ1392 106 4-3-   < >ɷɳ> ɳɷ > ɻ @.@ɳʀ ɻʀ  <ɹɳ ʆɳɷ >ʀ ʀ ʀ <ɹʀɳ ʆ> ʇ ɷ> ʆɳɷ ʈ >ɷɳ> ɳʈɳ ɳ ʇɳ ɸɳ ʆɮɷ>  < ɳʀ ʀɮ ɿʀ ʀɳ ɻʀ @ʀʀ ( Kappe and Korteling , 1998 ) .  4-4-ʇ> ʆɳ     ɮ ɳ  ʆɳɷ <ɹɷ> ɳ ɷ>ɵʀ ʀ ʀ ʆɷɳ ɷɳ ɷ> <ʆ ɷ>  ɳ  ʈ ʇ> ʆɳʈ ɹɳ  ...ʇ>ɳʀɳ.ʀ >ʀ ʆʀɳɷʀ ʀ      ʀ >ɷʀ ʇ>ʀ ʆɳ. ɮ ʀ  ʈ  ʈ ɸɳ ɳ <ʆɳ ʈ @ʈ ʀ @ ɮ ɷɷ ɷ>  ɮ <  )Walker, 2007(.   4-5-ʆɳɷɳɷ   ɷ>  ʆɳɷɳɷ <ʇ> ʆɳ ʀ ɳ ɼ ɮ ɸɳ >  ʀ ʇʀɮ ʀ  (Clarke et al, 2007) .ɳʀ<< ɿʈɳ ɷ> ʈ  ɳɷ ʆɳɷɳɷ ɷɷ  ʆɳɷ  ʆɮ   )Walker, 2007( .  4-6-  ɷ  ɸɳ    ɷʀʀɳɷ ɷ> ʀɳ ʀɳ.>ʀ ʆɳʀ ʀ ʆɮ ʀ ʈ ɸ  ɳ>ɷɳ> ɷɳʀ ɹɷ> ʀɳ  ɹɯɷ ɷ>  ʈ  ʈ ɷ (Haglund and Aberg, 2002) .  4-7-ʇɳ  ɸɳ ʇ>ɳ ɳ  ʀ <ʇɳʀ  ɸɳ ʇ>ɳ ɳɻʀɸʀ@ʀʀʀ   ɷ ʆɳɷʀɳ ʀ ɺʀ ʀ  (Jeanne BreenConsulting, 2009)      < >ʀ ʀɳɷ  ʇʀɳɷ  <ʇɳ    ʅ ʈ @>  ʈ> ɷ> > > ɹɳ ɿɳɳ  ʆɳɷ ʈ > ɮ   >ɳ ʇɳ     (Harbluk et al., 2007) .  4-8-ɹɳ  ɹɳ ɹɳ ɸɳ ɳ  @ʀ <ɳ  ʈ... ʇ>ɳ> ɺɸɮ ʆɳɷ  ɹɷ> ɳ ɷ>>ʀ ) McEvoy,Stevenson and Woodward, 2007 ( < )  NHTSA, 2007 (.   4-9-ɴɳɸɳ ʀ ʈ ʀ ɷ> ɳɷ ɳ  >ɮ  ɷ   ʀ <ʆʀɳɷ  ɸɳ ɴɳʀ ʀ ʆ>ʀʈ >ʀɮ  ʀ <ʀ ʈ ɴʈ ɷ> ʁ>   ɳ ʀ ɻʀʇ> ʆɳ  @ɳɹ  >ʇ ʇ @ɳ.ɳ ɷ>  <ɹɷ>ʀɸɳ @ɳ >ʀ ʇʀɳɷ ʀ ɳʀɳ ʀɳ ʆ>ʀ   ʇ>ɳ>>.ɷʈ ʀ ʄʀ ɷ> ʀ ʀ   ʇ>ɳ>  ʆɳ  >ɷ ɸɳ @ @ɳ> (Reyner et al., 2011) .  5-ɳ ʄ ɳ  5-1-ɳ ʄ ɳ  ʄ <@ ɳ ɷ> @ɷ>  @>ɳ  @ @  @ʀ ʀ ɷʀʀ @ʀ ʀ ʆɮ ʄɳ ʈ  ɽ <ʁ ɽ < ʄ     ʈ   ʄ   ʇ ɷ >ʈɮ .ʄ ʈɸɳ ʀ ʀ ʀɳ @ʀ ɺɸɳ>ʀʀɷ> @ʀʀʈ> ʀʀ ɷʀʀ ʀʀ ʆʀʀɷ> ʀʀ ʇʀʀɮ @ɸ ʇ>ɳ ɽ  ʈ @ @>.  ɷ>@ɸ  <@ɸʈɳ @ @ @ʄʀ <@  @ɳɷ <ʆ @ɳɳ >ʀɳ <ʀ @ʀ@ʀʇɸ ʈ ʈɷ> <ʀ < @ɸɳ <ʇ>ʀ ɷʀʄ ʇ>ɳ ɳ @ɸʈɷ ʈ >>  ɸʈɷ ɮ ɳ   >. ɷ>@ɸ ʀ @<ɴɳʀ ʀɳ ʀɳɷ <@   ɹʀ ʆɳɷ @ɳ ɳɷ @ɸʀ ʀʀ ʈ ʀ  ɳʈ   ʆ  @ɸ>.  ʄ ɸɳ ʇ>ɳ  ɷ>  ɳ @ɸ<ɳɷ @  ɿʈɳ ʆɳɴɮ ʈ <ɳ ɮ ʄɳ ʈ >ɸ @  ɳɷ  => >ɳ ɷ @ɳ   ɷʆɳ  <ʀ ɷ> ʀɳɷ ʀ ɳɷ  @   ɳ ʄ ʈ ɳ  ɳ@ɸ...107 ɷ <ʄʈɳ ʇɷ <> ʄ < ʈ  ʈ1392   ʀ ʄʀɳ ʇʀɳɷ ɳ   ɳɷʈɷ>  ʈ ʇ   ɮ ɷ>  ɷ ɳ < ɳ ɳɷ  .  5-2-ʄ @ɸʆɳ ɸɳ @ɳ    ɳ ɷ>ʄ <  @ɸʀ @ ʆʀ <ʆɳʀ ɷ> ʀʀʆʀʀ ɸɳ @ɳ<@ʀʀ @ʀʀʀʀɳɷɳʀʀ>ʀʀ.ʀʀ ɷ>2<  ʆʀʀ ɸɳ16@ʀʀ @ʀʀɳ ʀʀ ʀʀ @ʀʀ ʅʀʀ ɷ> <ʀʀɷɳʀʀɳ  3Ds studio max ɳ ʇ ʄ. ʈ ʄɸʀ ɸɳ @ɷɳ>ʀ  ʀ ʈ ʀ ʀɳ ʆ>ɳ>@ʀɳ ʀ ʀʀɷ> ʇʀ ʅ  ʆ ɳ  ʈ > ʄ <ɷɳɳ.  5-3-ɳ ɷ ʅ ɳ ɷ> ɳ ɷ ɸɳ <ɷɳɳ OGRE ʇʀ ʇ>ʀɳɳ. OGRE  ɳ ɷ ʆɸ   ɳ  C++  ɳ ʆɳɷ @ɳ ɳɷ ʆɳ ɳ ʈ ɳ ʇ ʀ ʀ ʅ <ɳɷɷɳɳ@ɸ ʈ    ʀ ʀ @ʀ )http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ogre( .  5-4- ɷ   ɸɳ <  ɷ  ʆ  @ɳʀ ɸ PhysX ɳ ʇ ʇ>ɳ. ɳɳɷ ʀ ʀɳ  ɸ   >ɷɳ>ʀ ɷ> ɳɷ ʀ ʅɳ   <ɷ> <ɳ  @ɸ.   6-@ɸ @ʈɷ>  ʄ  6-1-ɷʈ  ʆ<ʀ ʇɷʀɳ ʀɷ@ɸʀ ʀ ʀ ɷʀ ʀɳ ʅɸ ʀ ɳ>  <ɸ.ʇʈʀ <ɳʀʀ ʀɳ> ʀ ɳ ɳɳ @ɸ @ʈɷ> @ɳ  >ɳ <ɴ ɳ . ʇʈʀ <@ɸʀ ʈɷ>ʀ ʀ <ʄʀ ɳ ɷ>ʀ> ʀ ʀ ʀ >ʀ ɷɳʀ ʀ ʀ ɷ>  ɷ  ɳ  <ʈɷ>. ɷ  ʇɳɷ < ɷ <ʅʈ ʆɳʀ ʈ ʆʀ ɷ> ʀɷ ʀɳ ʀ @ɸ ʄ  ɳ  @ɷ ɸɳ <@ > ʅɳ.  6-2->ɴ   ʈɷ> ʆ ɳɳʀ <ʀ ʀɳ  @ɳ ʅ ʈɳ ʈ ɳ   ɸɳ ʈɷ>. @ɳɳ   <ʈɷ> ʀ ʀ ʀ ʈ> ʀ ɸɳ ʀ ʀ ɳ ɸ  ɴ ʀɳ ʀ ɸʈ ɳ.ʀ ʀ ʀ <ʄʈɳ ʀ   ʀ ʀ ʀɳ ʀ ʀ ɷ> ʀ    ʈɷ> > <   ɳ ʈɷ>  . <ʅʈ>    ʀ ʆ>ʀ  ʀ ɸɳ ʈɷ>ʀ ʀɳ ʀ (Hess andModjtahedzadeh, 1990) < (Ungoren and Peng, 2005) < (Braghin et al., 2008) .   <ɷ3< ሺSሬሻ ʆɳʀ ʁʀ ɷɳ>>. ʆ ʈɳɸ  ɷ@ʀ ʀ ʀ >ʀ > ɷɳ ɷɳ> ɳ @ɳɷ ɷ> ʈɷ>.ɷɳ> ɿ <ʁ ɷɳ>    ɷ>   ɹ ሺTሬሻ ʀ ʀɸʈ    ɷɳ> ʈ   ɸɳ    ሺRሬሻ @  ɸʈ  v ɳ:  Sሬൌ ୘ሬหୖሬԦหା஫ ൅ ୖሬ୴ା஫   )1(  ʆʀ ʀ ɷ> ʂ   ʆ ɸɳ @ @ɳʀ > <  ʈɷ>   ʈ ʈɷ> ሺԖሻ ʀɳ ʇ ʇ>ʈɳ .  )ɳ( )ɴ( )C(   2. ɳ ʄ @   )ɳ(ɷɳɳ ʅ ɳ> ɸɳ  @ 3Ds Max ɴ(ʈC( ɳ> ɸɳ  @ <ɸ 
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