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Aggressive Music and Calming Music in Everyday Life (Session 2) موسیقی پرخاشگرانه و موسیقی آرمش‌بخش در زندگی روزمرّه

Aggressive Music and Calming Music in Everyday Life (Session 2) موسیقی پرخاشگرانه و موسیقی آرمش‌بخش در زندگی روزمرّه
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  1   ʇ>ɳɸɮ ɷ > ʆɳ  ʇɳ>            ʈ ɳ   ɷɮ  ɸ ɷ>  ʇʋɸʈɷ  )ʇɷ 2(   ɳ>  ʇ ʅɳ   ɹɳ  <@ɷɷ ʈ ɳʈɷ ʅ ʆɳ ɷ> ɿ    ɳ @ɳʺ (aggressive)      ʇ ɷ> ɸɳɷ>  ɳ     .ɸɳ  ɳ>ɷɳ> ɸ ɳ ɷ>  ɳ>ʅ@   ʆɷɳ) Craig A. Anderson (ʈ ɹ) Nicholas L. Carnagey (ʈ ɳʈɳ ʇɳ> ɸɳ ) Janie Eubanks (ʇɳ> ɸɳɳ  ʅɳ ɮ ɹɳʈʇɷ ɷ>)5(84 ʈ ɳ ɳʈɷ (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology)  ɳ ʇɷ C .ɳ ɹɳ ʈ  ɸ  ɷ>    @ʈɷ 500>ɳ <ɳ  ʅɳ 7ʈ  ɸɳʈɮ ɮ  >ɳ ʈ8  ɸɳʈɮ )ɳɳ  ʇ7 ʇɳ( @ʈɷ @ɷɮ @ʂɳ> .ʇ > ɷ  ɷ @  >ɳɳ @ɳ ɸɳʈɮ   ɳ ɷ ʆɳ   ɳʈɷ >ɷɳɳ ɳ   ʆɮɸɳ  ʈ   ʈɷ>  ʇ>ɳ> ɷɳ ɮ ɷɳ ɷ> >  @ɳ  ɳʈ ɳ  .ɳ  @ɳ   ɸɳʈɮ <@ɷɮʈ  @ ʆɷɷ>  > ʇ ɴɳ @ɳ   @ ʈ  ɷ>ɿ ʈ> ɮ  ʈɮ ɳ   ɸ   ɷ>   ʇ ʇɳ  ʆɳ   @ɸɳʈɮ  > ɳʈ ʈɮ   ʈɷ>      ɸɳ ɳ  >   ʇɳ @ɳ>ɳ  ʈ  > .  @ɸɳʈɮ ɿ ɷ>ɮ ʇʺɳʈ @>ɸ   ʇɳ  ɳ>ɳ ɳɷ  ɷ> @ɳ  ɶ ʈ  ʇʺɳʈ  ɹɳ>ɳ  >   ʇ ɷ> ɺ ʈ   @ɳ  ɳɷ ʆɮ ɸʈ   >    ɳɷ  ʈ ɹɳ   ɸɳ ʈ > ʆɮ  ɳ  ɳ  >ɷɳɳɳ.ɷ> ɳɽɷɳ   @ɮ      ɳɳ  ɮ > <ɳ  ɳ ʄ ɸ >. ʈɷ> ɳ ʆɷɳ >   ʈɮ      ɳ@ʈɷ  @ɳ ɷɳ@ʈ ʆɳ     ɳ ɷ  ʈ >ɷɳ  ɷ  ɳ ɷɳ ɷ> @   .ɷɳ  ɷɷ ɳ ɳ>ɳ ɷ>   ɳ ɳ  ɷ> ɴ>ɳ ɸɳ ɷʈ @ɷɷ  ɳɳ ɷ>   ɷ ɳ   ɷɳ>ɳʈ  ɳɷ  >  @ɳ  ɴ>ɳ ɸɳ ɷ ɷɷ  .ɳɳ ɷ>  ɳ  ɷ  ɷ         ʆɮ   ʈ  >.  ʈ  @  >ɳ   ɳ  <ʇɳ> ʈ> ɳ ʆɳɳ>   ʅɳ @  ʆ   @  ɳɷ >ɳɳ  ʇ ɷ ɷ @ ɿɳɳ  > ɳ ɸɳ @   .@ ɷɳ> ɳ>   ɸ  ɷ ʆ ʈ   ɸʈɳ @  ɷ> > ɳ ɸɳ    >ɷ.  ʆɷɳ >  ɳ ʆɮ ɳ ɳ>  ɳ   ɳ  ɮ @ʈɳ ʈ ʆɳ   ɳ> @  ʆ @ɳ  ɴɳ ɷ> .   2     1( ɳ  ʇɷɳ   ʇʈ ʂ   ɳ>     ʄ ɷ> ɳ ɷ> ʈ   ʈ  ɳ @<ɳ   ɳ ɸɳ <    . ɷ>ɺ ʈ ɷ  >ʈ  ʆɳɳ  @ɳ@@>ʈ>    ɳ    ʈ> @> ʈ  ʈ  @ɷɮ ʇ <> ɷɮ    @ ʈ ɮ ɷ  ʈ ɷ ɷ   ʈ  ɷ>   >. ɸɳ @ ɸɷ< > ɳʅ ɳ  ʅ ɳ ɮ .   ʇ ʈ ɷ @   @ ʇɸ .ɸɳ  ʈ@ ɷ ɷ>  ɮ  ʆɳɳ ʆɸʄ ɷ @ ɮ ɷɳ>  ɳ    ɳ ʆ ʈ ɷ> ʆ ʄ ɳ ɸɳ @ɳ>. ʇ>  ɷ>  ɳ ʂ >ɷ ɷ><    ʆɳ  ɷɳ @@ɳ ʈ < <ɷ  3    ʆ  >.    ɳ  ɷ ɸɳ ɳ   ʈ  ɸɳ ʇ>ɳɷ> @>ɸ     ɳʈɷ @ ɸɳ @ɳ> ɳ ʇ @ɳ  ʈ ɳ . 1   ʈ ʆ  ɳ   ʆʈɷ> ɳ ʈ ɳ @ɸɳ ʇ>ɳ    ɳ ʆɮ  ɷɳ    ɳɳ  ʈ  ɳʺ @ɷ ʈ   >ʇ @ɳ    ɷ>   > ɷɳʆɳ ʈɳ  ʈʆ ɳɳ ʄ ɷ>  > .ʅ>ɷ ʇɳ> ɸɳ ɳ> ʈ>  ɳ ɳ ɳʈ @ ʅ) Wanamaker (ʁɸɷ ʈ) Reznikoff  ( ɷ>ʆɳ  @ɳ "   @ɸɳʈɮ ʃɳɷ @ɳ ʈ ɳ "   ɷ>ʄ ʈ  @  ) Psychol (ɳ  ɷɳ  >ɷ. ʈ  ʈ ɷɳ       ɳ ʆ  ɳ ɹɳ  ʇɳ   @) > ɿɷ  ɿɳ @ɳ Wanamaker and Reznikoff 1989 (.    > ɸɳ      ɳ @<ɳ >ɳɳ  ɷɳ ɷ> ʆɮ  ɳ.>ɳɳ  ɷ>  ɸɳ    ɳ ɼ ɷ>  > @> .ɷ   ɳ ɭ ɷɮ    ʈ  >    ɷ  ʈ >  @ʈɷ   ɳ> @ʈ  @  ɸ ʆɮɷ   >. ɳ ʆ>ɷʈɮ  ɸɳ  ʁ  ɿ ɳ<  >ɳ ɳ  ɻɳ ɷ> ɴɳɳ @    ʈɳ  ʆ> ʁ ɷ ɷ> ʆɮ @<ʆɸ  ʈ  ɸ ʈ ʆɷ> @ɳ ɳɷ @    ..ɮ ʄ ʆɳ  ɳɷ> ʇ  ɳ@ɳ   ɸ >ɳ> ʆ ʇ ɻ ɸɳ  @ contraceptive   ʇ>ɳ <     ɸ ɮ ɸɳ ʇ>ɳ              ɮ  ʄ ʄ    ɳ)ɳ@  ɿɳ     ʇ   ɮ   ʇɷ@ Journal of Sexual Medicine  DrClaudia Panzer (. ʈ  ɸɳ     @ʈ>  ɷ>  ɳ ʈ ʆɸʈ ʆɳ> ɷ> ɳ  ɳ  @ ʁ.  ɷ ɳ ɷ> ʆɮ ʆɳ  ɳ> ɷ>  ɳ   ɸʈ ɷ >       >ɳ   ʈ ɸ @>  ɷ> ɳɷ ʆɸ  @     ɸɳɸɳɳ @ʈ  ʆ >     ʆɮ ʆɳ  ɸ ɷ> ʈ >       ɳ  ɳɷ >  >>    ɹɳ ʃ ʈ  @> ɮ   ɷ ɮɷ> @>ɸ ɳ   >ɷɳ>.ɳ ɷ> ʆɸ    ʇɷɳ ɳ    > ɸɳ ɳɷɮ  ʈ ʇ>   ɳɷ ʆɮ @ɷ ɳ  ɳ>  ʆ  >.ɳ    ɸ ɳ @   >ɳɳ           ʈ   @ ɮ      > ɮ            ɽɷɳ ʆɸ ɷ> ɳ@ɳ  ʁ >  ɳ    ʈ         .     ɮ    @  Edward Donnerstein, Daniel Lenz, and Steven Penrod >ɳ> ʆ ɳ  ɳ @  ɳ  ʁ     >ɷɳ.  ɸɳ    ɷ>   ɽɷɳ   ɾ ɸɳ       ʈ   ʄʈ     ʈ  ʈɷ  ɸʈ   ʈ   ɷ>     >> .ɸ ɷ> ʄ ʆɳ  ʆɷɳ  ʆ ʃɸ  ʆ ʇ ɳ ʈ >   ʈ >ɷ>  >ɮ >ʈ ɷ ɷ> <        >> .  1   ɳ> ʇ  ɷɮ @ɷɳ ɺɸɷɳ > ɷ>  ɳʇ ʄ>  ʈ  ɷ  >ɷ  ɿ @ >  . ʇ ɶ @ ʅɮ ɷ> ʆɳ    ɳ    ʃɷ> @ɳ ɴɳ ʈʇɳ.   4     ɴ ɳ ɸ ɷ>  @ɳ   @ –  ɷ ɷ> ʇɸʈɳʇɳ ɳ @    ʇɳ  ʈ @ > – ʅɳ @>    ɳ. ɳ ɸɳ  ɷ   ʆ ɳʈɷ ɳ  ʈ ʆ ɳ ʇɳ>) Janet S. Lawrence (ɷʈ> ʈ    ) Doris J. Joyner (  ʅɳ ɳ. ɷ>  ɳ @ ɳʅ @ "  ɳ  @   ɺ  ʃɳɷ ʆɸ  ʆɳ>    " ʇɳ. ɳ ɷ>75ɷɳ  >ɷ >    ɳʆ ɸɳ  ɮ ɷ>   ɳ> ʄ   ɺ ʆɳ ʈ ɳɳ  ɿ ɮ ʈ  ɮ C@ ʇɸɳɳ    ʈ>> . ɳ ɷ>ʆ> ɳ ɸɳ  ʇ   ɿɳɳ   >ɷ >ɳɳ@ʂ<  ɮ ʇ> < ɳ <  ɳ>ɳ ʆɳ @> >ɷɳ ʈ ɮ @ɳ  ɽɷɳ  <ʆɸ ɳ ɸɳ ʈ @ ʇɸɳɳ>.ɳ  @   ɳʈ ɳ    ɼ ɷ>  ɷɳ  @ɳ  ʄ @      >ɷ >ɳɳʇ<ɮ  ʇ>  ɷ> @>ɸ  ʈ ʆɸ ɳ> ɳ.ɳ  ɳ ɳ  ʇɳ  ʇ ʇɳ @   ɳ ɽɷɳ ɳɳ. ɳ  @  > ɸɳ @ɷɮ  ɷ>     ɳ ʆɮ < >ɷɳ  ʇ  ɳ  ɳ>ʈɷ ɳ ɳ.      ʈ  ɷɳ  ʆɮ ʆ ʇ> ʈ  ɿɳɳ ɽɷɳ >ɷ ɷ> @>  ɷ> ʈɷ ɮ ) Alan M. Rubin (ʈ ɳ> < ʇɳ> ɸɳ) Daniel V. West (   ɸɳ ʈ   @ʈ) Wendy S. Mitchell (ɴ ʇɳ> ɸɳɳɷ>ɳ < ʅɳ243> ɹɳ  >  ɷɳ ɸɮ >ɷ  ɿɳɳ  ɮ @ɷɳ.  ɳ    >ɳɳ ɸɳ > ʆɮ >ɳ> ʆ   @ ʄ   ɺ  < @ɳ ʈ ɮ  ɸɳ > ʆɮ ʈ ɷɳ> ʆɸ   @ ɳ  ʆɳ ʅ  ʇɳ ɮ  ʇ> >  Cɷ    ɮ @ɷɳ >  ʆ ɷɳ> ʆɸ  . ɸɳ>@ ɷɮ    ɳ @<@ ʈ  @  ɷ>  @ ʇ>ɳ ʈ ʆ>ʇʺɳʈ ɸɳ ʇɸʈɷ @ɳ ɮ .ʇɳ> @ɳɷɳ>  ɷ  >ɳɳɸɳ ɳ ɷ  @   >     ʇɸʈɷ  ɷ>> @ɷ  .@ ɷɮ ɼ ɷ> ɷɳ     ɮ  ɳ  @ɷ ɷ> @>ɷɳ> ɳɸʈɷ  ɷ>  ʈ ɮ .ɹɳ    ɳ ɷ> ʇ @ɳ ɳʈɷ ʈ  ʈ  @) Personality and SocialPsychology Bulletin (  >ɳ  ) Brad J. Bushman (ʈ ɳʆɳ  " @> ɳ @ ɷɮ  @   ɮ  "   ɷɳ  >ɷ ɳ. ɳ @ɳ  ɳ ɷ>@ > ɳ ɸɮ ʈ> ʂ.ɷ>   ɷɳ ʆ  ɷɳ ɷ>  ɸɳ   ʄʈɳ ɸɮ ɷ>ʆɮ ʈ @ ʈ ʆ  @ɳɷɳ>>: ʈɳɮ ɳ   ʈ> <  ʈ >   >.> @ɳ ɮ  @ ɷɮ @ɳɸɳʆ > .ɸɳ ɳ ʆ ɸɳ ɮ  ɮ    ɳ   ɷʈɮ    ɳɷ  ɸɳ .@ɳ  ʆ  ɸɳ ɮ  ɳ ɷ>   > ʇ  ɮ  ɷɮ ɮ >  ɸɳ ɳɷ ɷʈɮ  ʈ ɮ ɳ> >.ɷ>  5   ʇʈ @ɳ ʈ   ɮ  ɳ ʇʈ  @ɳ   ʇʈ ʈ>  ʆ  ʅʈ> ɸɮ ɳ  >ɮ   .ɸɳ   ɳ ɮɸɳ ʈ  ɷɳ ɮ ɷɳ ɷ>  ʈ>  >          ʆɸ  ɽ ɳ ʈ > ɷ ɳɷ   ɳ ʆ> ʆɸ  ɽ ʇʺɳʈ ɳ  > ɷ ɳɷ >  ɳ.    ʇʺɳʈ ɳʇ ɴɳ @  ʈ > ɮ    > ɮ .> ʇ  ɮ  @ ɳ ɮ @ɳ  ʆ  ɸɳ ɮ <>ɳ> ʆ  ɷɮ ɷ> ɴɳɮ   ɷ ɸɳ  >> @  .   <>  ʈ ɳ ɳʈ  ɸ   ʅɳ ʈ ɳ @ɷ ʆ  ɳ  <> ʁ ɸɳɳ @ɷ ɷ> ʆɳ @ɳ  ʇ ʇ    @.ʇɸɳɳ ʊʀ  ɳ ʆɳ @  ɸ ɷ>   > @ɳ >ɮ ɷɷ ʈ ɶ  @ʀ ʇʀ ɷ  ʀ.ʇʀ <ʀ̹ ɳ @ɷ  ʆ   ɷ ʃ ɸɳ ɳɷ >ɮ  @ʀ ʀɸ ʆ  ʇ   < ʈ ɳɳ> > ʃ  ɳ> ɳɷ @ʈ ɳ .ʆɳʈ  ɳ  ɳ ) Walton 1994: 54 (ɳɷ ʁʈ ʄɳ ɳ  »ʀ  @> >ɷɳʈ  ʇ ɳ>=ʀɳ ʀ ʆʈɷ> ɷ> ʀ ʀ> ʀ ʅʀ«ʀ >ɷʀ̺ ɷ̺ɳ ) Kierkegaard 1885: 72 (ɽɳ  ɸ ɳ ɷ> ʇ ɸɳɳ @ . ʈɳʀ ʀ ʀ ʀ ʀ ʇʀ   ʅ ʆʈ ɳ     @»ɳʈ ɳ«>  ɳ <>ʅɳ.  ɳɷ >  @ɳ    ʅ ɸɳ ɳʈ ɳ  >  ɸɳ     ɾ ɸɳ   ɷ> >  ʅ ʆ ɷɳʀ ʅ ɸɳ   > .    >  ɷ> >ɷɷɳ ʆ @  @ɳ ɳɷ   ɳ  >ʈ> ɷɳ ɳ>.ɳ  ʈɳ    ɷ  ʈʀ ɷʀ ʀɳ ʀ ʀ ɷ>ʀ ʀ ʈ ɳ   > @.ʀɷ̵>ɮ ) Adorno 1997: 2, 36 ( :   ʆ ɳɸ ɳɷ   ɷ ɳʈ ɷ> >ɷɷɳʀ >ʀɳ ʈ ɳ> ʆ̵>  >ɷɳ> ɳ ɳʈʺɷ  ɳ  ʆɳʀɳ ʇ> >ɳɸɮ ɳɷ ʆɮ  ɳ ɳʈ ʆ ɳɷ ɺɳ.ɸɳ ʀ @ɳʀ ʇɸ ɷ> ʆ ɷʈɳ>ɳ ɷ>  ɳɳ    ɳ @ɷ> ʇʀ ʇʀɳɷ> ʀ ʈ ʅʀ @ɳɷɳ> @ʀ ʇɸ ʂɳ @ɸɳ> .   ɸɳ >  ʇ>ɳ @ʆɮ ʆ> ɷʈɷ ʈ ʆɳɸ  ɺɸɷɳ ɹʀɳ ʀ @ʀɷ ʈ ʀɳ @ʀ ɳ ɳ.> ɸɳ@1980   ʆɳ ɳ @ –  ɸ  ʇʈ ʄ̵ɷ ɳ ʃɳɷ @ – ɳ  ɳʈ @ɳ ɳɷ .ʆɷ ɷɮ ɹɳ ) Harrington 1986 (ʀɳʈ ɸɳ  ɸɳ )51(%ɷ>  ʆɳɸ @ʈɷ  ɴ ɳ ʃɳɷ   ɮ>ɷɳ .ʆɮ  >ɳ ɳ @ɳ  ɸɳɳʀ    ɳ  ɳ ɳʀ ʀɳ ʂɳ @>ɷɳɳ  ̹  ɷ>  ɳ @ɷɳ @ɳɷɳ> ʆɮ @ʀ. ʆɮɷ  ʆɳ  ʆɮ ʆɳɸ   ɳ  .   ʆ  ɳɷ > ɸ ɳ ɳɷ>   ɸɳ   >ʇʋɸʈɷ ɸʀ ɳʀ ɿɳ ʆɳ @.ʀ @> ɷɮ ɹɳ) NASSP, 1984 (>ɳɳ  ɸɳ12 18>ʈ @ ʄ81%ɳ> ɸɳɳʀɸ ɷ> ʀ  ɳ ʇʋɸʈɷʆɮ @ »«@ɷɮ  ɳ ɸɳ ʈ <>ɷɳ>88%ɷ>ʇ>ʀ  ɸɳɳ ʃɳɷ   ʆ>ɳ> ɺ >ɷʀɳ ) quoted in Leming 1987: 364-365 .(ʀ ʀɳ ʀ ʀ ʀ ɽɷɳ  @>ɸ ɷ  >ɳɳ ɳ  ɸɳʇ>ɳ.ʆɳ> @ɳ >ɳɳ ɳ75%ʆɳ @ɳ ʈ66%  ɳɷ>.ʃʀʈ @ɷɮ ɳɳ ʈ @ɳ ɷɮ ɳ
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