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‘Why Small Currencies Matter: Fractional Pieces and Non-Metallic Monies in Medieval India (1200-1800)’

‘Why Small Currencies Matter: Fractional Pieces and Non-Metallic Monies in Medieval India (1200-1800)’
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  This is a digital o󰁦fprint for restricted use only | © 2015 Koninklijke Brill NV  Money in Asia (1200–1900): Small Currencies in Social and Political Contexts  Edited by  Jane Kate Leonard and Ulrich Theobald 󰁌󰁅󰁉󰁄󰁅󰁎 | 󰁂󰁏󰁓󰁔󰁏󰁎  This is a digital o󰁦fprint for restricted use only | © 2015 Koninklijke Brill NV  Contents Preface: Some Thoughts on the Nature of Money   ix   Mark Elvin  Acknowledgements  xl List of Tables, Figures, and Maps  xlii List of Contributors  xlvii  Introduction  1 Control the Uncontrollable: The Endless Trouble with Small Cash Ulrich Theobald  󰁐󰁡󰁲󰁴 󰀱 Small Currencies: Theory and Comparative Perspective 1 Link-Unit-of-Account versus Ratio-Unit-of-Account Moneys: Seventeenth-Century Dutch Mint Policy   41  Dennis O. Flynn 2 The Development of Small Early Money in Western Antiquity and Early China  71  Peter Bernholz 3 Fractional Pieces and Non-Metallic Monies in Medieval India (1200–1750)  86  Najaf Haider  4 The ‘Doit Infestation in Java’: Exchange Rates between Silver and Copper Coins in Netherlands India in the Period 1816–1854  108 Willem Wolters 󰁐󰁡󰁲󰁴 󰀲 Small Currencies in China: Case Studies of Legal,  Economic, and Cultural Aspects 5 “Silver is Expensive, Cash is Cheap”: O􀁦ij󰁩cial and Private Cash Forgeries as the Main Cause for the Nineteenth-Century Monetary Turmoil  143 Werner Burger    󰁶󰁩 󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁴󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁳 This is a digital o󰁦fprint for restricted use only | © 2015 Koninklijke Brill NV  6 The Devastation of the Qing Mints, 1821–1850  155  Man-houng Lin 7 Smoke on the Mountain: The Infamous Counterfeiting Case of Tongzi District, Guizhou Province, 1794  188 Cao Jin and Hans Ulrich Vogel  8 Japanese and Vietnamese Coins Circulating in China: A Numismatic  Approach  220 Werner Burger  9 Copper Cash in Chinese Short Stories Compiled by Feng Menglong (1574–1646)  224 Shan Kunqin 10 Cash Crimes: Why Cash Mattered in Mid-Eighteenth Century Petty Crime  247  Roger Greatrex 11 Legal Con󰁦󰁬icts Concerning Wage Payments in Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century China: The Baxian Cases  265 Christine Moll-Murata 12 Coins Which are Not Money: Cultural Functions and Symbolism  309 Werner Burger  󰁐󰁡󰁲󰁴 󰀳 Chinese Experiments in Monetary Policy, Military Expenditure, and Grain Transport  13 Silver, Copper, Rice and Debt: Monetary Policy and O􀁦ij󰁩ce Selling in China during the Taiping Rebellion  345  Elisabeth Kaske 14 Monetary and Non-Monetary Military Rewards in the Early and High-Qing Period (1673–1795)  398 Ulrich Theobald    󰁶󰁩󰁩 󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁴󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁳 This is a digital o󰁦fprint for restricted use only | © 2015 Koninklijke Brill NV  15 The Fixers: The Role of the Zhili Grain Brokers in the 1826 Sea Transport Experiment  420  Jane Kate Leonard  󰁐󰁡󰁲󰁴 󰀴  Metals and Mint Metals in Japan: Glimpses from Trade and Diplomacy 16 Import Trade in Precious Metals and the Economy of Japan, 1763–c. 1850  443  Ryūto Shimada 17 Copper Transportation in Tokugawa Japan: Its In󰁦󰁬uence on Copper Shortage in Nagasaki  464  Keiko Nagase-Reimer  18 A Metal Dealer and Spy from Nagasaki in Manila in the First Quarter of the Seventeenth Century   489  Reinier H. Hesselink  Index   511  This is a digital o󰁦fprint for restricted use only | © 2015 Koninklijke Brill NV  󰁃󰁈󰁁󰁐󰁔󰁅󰁒 󐀳 Fractional Pieces and Non-Metallic Monies in Medieval India (1200–1750)  Najaf Haider   Medieval Indian Monetary Economy: Structure and Developmental Stages The period of medieval Indian history is conventionally ij􀁩xed between 1200 and 1750 (more precisely 1757 󰁡󰁤) keeping in view the major changes that took place following the establishment of the Turkish Sultanate in Northern India centred at Delhi. The period witnessed the emergence of a centralized imperial polity, rise and fall of three empires—Turkish (1206–1450 󰁡󰁤), Afghan (1451–1526 and 1540–1555 󰁡󰁤) and Mughal (1526–1540 and 1555–1757 󰁡󰁤)—and the import of Perso-Islamic culture. There was also a new economic organi-zation centred round cities, markets and entrepots as visible symbols of an expanding exchange economy. The urban centres were part of a large inte-grated circuit of economic and cultural exchange based on the supply of food grains to feed the town population as well as raw materials and skills for craft products. New technologies of production also arrived with the migration of elites and artisans to the towns.􀀱Two domains of economic activities co-existed in medieval India: one of subsistence and marginal use of money, and the other of market relations of exchange. It is possible to position the countryside in the ij􀁩rst domain and cit-ies in the second with an overlapping space in between. The urban centres * I wish to express my gratitude to Professor Hans Ulrich Vogel for giving me the opportunity to participate in the Third International Workshop on Monies, Markets and Finance in China and East Asia, 1600–1900 held at Tubingen. I am most grateful to Jane Leonard for the useful comments which helped tighten the structure of the paper.󰀱 This survey of the monetary economy and movements is based on the following: Najaf Haider, ‘Coinage and the Silver Crisis’, and ‘Foreign Trade of India’, in Irfan Habib (ed.),  Economic History of Medieval India (1200–1500)  (Delhi: Pearson Education India, 2011); idem , ‘Standardization and Empire: A Study of the Exchange Rates of Mughal Currencies’, in Eugenia Vanina and D.N. Jha (eds.),  Mind over Matter: Essays on Mentalities in Medieval India  (Chennai: Tulika, 2009); idem , ‘Structure and Movement of Wages in the Mughal Empire’, in  Jan Lucassen (ed.), Wages and Currency: Global and Historical Comparisons  (Bern: Peter Lang, 2007), pp. 293–323.
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